Coordination Meaning, Definition, Process


Coordination Meaning, Definition, Process

Meaning of Coordination

Coordination refers to the ability to work together effectively and efficiently to achieve a common goal or objective. It involves organising, synchronizing, and integrating the activities, actions and efforts of individuals or groups. It aims to achieve unity of action in the pursuit of shared goals.

Coordination acts as a vital force that binds all other management functions (planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling) together. It involves bringing various components or elements together in a well-organized and harmonious manner to ensure smooth functioning and effective cooperation.

By systematically synchronizing the efforts of subordinates, coordination ensures that everyone works together in an orderly manner and tasks are completed in the right quantity, at the right time, and with the right level of quality. By working together and coordinating the efforts, coordination enables the team members to achieve the shared objective and common goals of the organization.

Efficient coordination is an essential component for achieving efficiency and maximizing overall performance by minimizing redundant efforts within a group or organization.

Definition of Coordination

According to Henri Fayol. “Co-ordination harmonises, synchronises and unifies individual effort for action and the achievement of the business objectives”.

According to George Terry, “Co-ordination is the orderly synchronisation of efforts to provide the amount, timing, and directing of execution resulting in harmonious and unified action to stated objectives’.

Management seeks to achieve coordination through its basic functions of planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling. That is why; coordination is not a separate function of management because achieving harmony between individuals’ efforts towards the achievement of group goals is key to the success of management.

Coordination is the essence of management and is implicit and inherent in all functions of management. In organizations or teams, coordination usually involves the following:


Communication: Communication is important for sharing information, ideas, and instructions among people or groups. By facilitating understanding and alignment, communication ensures that everyone is on the same page and working toward the same objectives.

Planning: Planning enables the creation of a clear roadmap and strategies that outline tasks, goals, and timelines to guide coordinated efforts. It provides a framework to guide the coordinated efforts and ensures that everyone is working towards the same end goal, facilitating efficient collaboration and progress.

Allocation of resources: Coordinated activities are supported by the allocation and distribution of resources. It is necessary to assign and distribute resources such as manpower, money, equipment and materials to support coordinated activities and get desired results.

Task assignment: Task assignment identifies the individuals responsible for performing specific tasks and clarifies their roles and responsibilities. This ensures that everyone understands their assigned duties, thereby promoting efficient teamwork and collaboration.

Synchronization: Synchronization ensures that all the activities to be performed by people and groups are timed and sequenced correctly to avoid conflicts, overlaps, or delays. This ensures that everyone works together in a coordinated and efficient way.

Monitoring and feedback: The work done by individuals should be consistently monitored, evaluated, and provided with feedback to adjust the coordination process. This ensures that everyone in an organization is informed about their progress and can make necessary adjustments to achieve the best possible results.

Management Process and Coordination

Coordination is not a separate function but the very essence of management. It is because achievement harmony between individual efforts towards the accomplishment of group goals is the very purpose of management. Coordination is inherent in all the functions of management. It permeates the entire process of managing. Like the thread in a garland, coordination has to be a part of all managerial functions. Every managerial function is an exercise in coordination.

Coordination is required in every activity and every function of the management. Coordination is maintained in all the activities of the department so that the enterprise can be run efficiently and effectively. The concept of essence is related to the intrinsic nature of the object. Every function of management must in itself be coordinated. So it becomes the central task of the manager to reconcile the differences in approach, timing, effort, or interest and to harmonise cooperative and individual goals.

Just like the conductor of an orchestra, a manager has to create rhythm (balance) and unity among the activities of his subordinates. For this purpose, he performs managerial functions. A manager achieves coordination through the management process and coordination is the outcome of managerial functions. Coordination makes planning more purposeful, organisation more well-knit and control more regulative. It is the key to the process of management.

A manager succeeds to the extent he can achieve coordination. “It thus becomes the central task of the manager to reconcile differences in approach, timing, effort or interest and to harmonise cooperative and individual goals.” Coordination is the result which can be achieved through the proper performance of managerial functions.

1) Coordination through Planning: Planning cannot prove effective if the sub-plans of the organisation do not match with the overall or main plan. Coordination reconciles the policies and programmes of the various departments with the policies and programmes of the organisation so that overall objectives can be achieved.

Proper coordination as well is required when plans of the organisation are prepared with all the people who are involved in it. Further, coordination can be achieved through planning by integrating the plans of different departments. Planning is the ideal time to bring about coordination through mutual discussions, exchange of ideas, and so on. For example, the production manager must consult the personnel manager, finance manager, sales manager, etc, during planning for a new product.

2) Coordination through Organising: Organisation would be poor if there is a lack of harmony in vertical and horizontal authority relationships. Coordination helps in simplifying the organisational structure as well as reducing conflicts. Coordination is required at the time of the division of work, i.e., delegating authority and creating responsibility. So for successfully performing the function of organising, there is a great set of coordination. When a manager assigns various activities to subordinates, all the operations and functions which are closely related and connected may be put under the charge of one executive. This helps to achieve better coordination.

3) Coordination through Staffing: Staffing must be consistent with the needs and the resources of the enterprise. Every manager requires coordination for performing the function of recruitment,  selection,  training, development, performance appraisal, transfers, demotion, promotion, etc. Placing the right person at the right place and at the right time requires coordination. So coordination is required for effectively performing the function of management. While staffing, the manager should keep in mind the nature of jobs and the type of persons required for managing them. He should ensure the right type of executives in various positions. All these will help later in achieving proper coordination.

4) Coordination through Directing: This cannot be proved effective if the orders and instructions given to the employees are not consistent with the requirements of the circumstances. Coordination promotes effective Communication, leadership, supervision, and motivation. Similarly effective communication leadership, motivation, and supervision enhance coordination in the enterprise. When a manager directs his subordinates he also coordinates their work. He gives them directions, guidelines and instructions for doing the job assigned to them. Thus, directions given to employees also lead to coordination

5) Coordination through Controlling: While performing the function of controlling, the manager comes to know whether or not the current activities are in keeping with the desired goals. While controlling, if the manager finds that the performance is not as planned or as directed, he immediately takes remedial action. For the measurement of actual performance, comparing it with the standards and taking corrective action requires coordination of the different activities and the units in the organisation. So coordination is required for the performance of the controlling function efficiently.

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