Table of Content:
Meaning of Leadership
Leadership is the ability to inspire confidence and support among people who are needed to achieve organisational goals. It is a process that shapes the group goals and organisational goals, motivates behaviour towards the achievement of these goals, and helps to define groups or organisational culture.
The basis of good leadership is a noble character and selfless service toward the organisation. To be a leader, a person has to make a difference and facilitate positive changes. It is the creation of an environment in which others can self-actualise in the process of completing the job.
It refers to the qualities the individuals possess, allowing them to motivate others to move toward achieving concrete objectives. It is a fascinating social phenomenon that occurs in all groups of people regardless of geography, culture, or nationality.
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Leadership plays a pivotal role at all levels of management because in the absence of effective leadership no management can attain the desired outcomes. Leaders are those who not only foresight the change, but also try to convince the employees, about the need for change and facilitate, direct and support the employees during the change process.
Definition of Leadership
According to George R. Terry, “Leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly objectives”
According to Rosenbach and Taylor, “Leadership is all about getting people to work together to make things happen that might not otherwise occur or prevent things from happening that would ordinarily take place”.
According to Hollander, “Leadership is a process of influence between a leader and those who are followers”.
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According to Harry Truman, “Leadership is the ability to get other people to do what they do not want to do and like it”.
According to Chester Barnard, “Leadership is the ability of a superior to influence the behaviour of his subordinates and persuade them to follow a particular course of action”.
According to Stogdill, “Leadership may be considered as the process (act) of influencing the activities of an organised group in its efforts toward goal setting and goal achievement”.
According to Hemphill & Coons, “Leadership is the behaviour of an individual when he is directing the activities of a group toward a shared goal”.
Nature of Leadership
The nature of leadership is as follows:
1) Process of Influence:
Leadership is a process whose important part is the influence executed by the leader on group members. A person is said to have an impact on other people when they are willing to carry out his wishes and accept his guidance, advice and direction. Successful leaders can influence the behaviour, attitudes, and beliefs of their followers.
2) Continuous Process:
Leadership is not a one-time influence on subordinates or followers. To be a good leader, a manager should sustain leadership continuously. So, once a leader does not guarantee always being a leader.
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3) Art and Science:
Leadership is both an art and a science. Effective leadership needs both dimensions. Leadership is a science as it is concerned with the observation, research and classification of leadership practices which results in a good explanation of what makes leaders effective. Leadership is an art as it includes developing practical experience in the application of the leadership methods and practices resulting from the “science of leadership”. Thus, the art of leadership is about practising leadership science until one develops intuition.
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4) Related to the Situation:
Leadership is always associated with a particular situation at a given point in time and under a specific set of conditions. That means leadership styles will be distinctive under different situations.
5) Function of Stimulation:
Leadership is the activity of motivating people to strive willingly to achieve organisational goals. Leaders are considered successful when they can subordinate the personal interests of the employees to the general interests of the organisation.
6) Rational and Emotional:
Leadership includes actions and rules based on analysis and reasoning as well as based on passion and motivation. Since people are both rational and emotional, leaders can use rational techniques and emotional appeals.
7) Community of Interests:
There must be a community of interests among the leader and his followers. A leader has his own objectives. The followers have their own objectives. They are moving in different directions in the absence of a community of interests. It is not advisable. It is the leader who should try to reconcile the different objectives and compromise personal interests with organisational interests.
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8) Symbiotic Relationship:
Leadership tends to focus entirely on the leader although, without the followers, there is no leader. Leadership is symbiotic or participatory in the sense that leaders and followers exist in a mutually beneficial relationship where each adds to the effectiveness of the other.