Approaches of Organisational Behaviour
Organisational Behaviour is the study of humans in organizations. It relates to the connection between the employees and the owner. It even helps in improving job performance and makes the job more enjoyable for employees, it promotes modern-day problems and encourages leadership.
Approaches of Organisational Behaviour
There are 4 Approaches to Organisational Behaviour. Approaches of ob are as follows:
1) Human Resource Approach
The human resource approach is also known as a “supportive approach”. The human resource approach is advancing in nature. It is concerned with the growth and development of people towards a higher level of competency, creativity, and fulfilment because people are a central resource in any organization and society. The nature of the human resource approach can be understood by comparing it with the traditional management approach before the 1900s. In the traditional approach, managers decide what should be done and then closely control employees to check task performance. Management was directive and controlling. The human resources approach however is supportive. It helps employees to become better, and more responsible towards work and then it tries to create an environment in which they may contribute to the limits of their improved abilities.
2) Contingency Approach
The contingency approach is more interdisciplinary, system-oriented, and research-oriented than the traditional approach. Thus, it helps managers to use this approach inappropriate manner and all the current knowledge about people in the organization. Traditional management searched for the principle to provide “one best way” of managing.
There is a correct way to organize, delegate and divide the work. Management principles were considered to be universal. As the field of organizational behaviour developed, many of its followers initially supported the concept of generalization. Behavioural ideas were supposed to apply in any type of situation.
One example was the belief that employee-oriented leadership should consistently be better than task-oriented leadership, no matter what the circumstances are. An occasional exception may be admitted, but in general, early thoughts and principles were applied universally. The more accepted view in the 21st century is that few across-the-board concepts apply in all instances. Situations are much more complex than first perceived, and then different variables may require different behavioural approaches. The result is the contingency approach to organizational behaviour, which means that different situations require different behavioural practices for the greatest effectiveness.
3) Result-Oriented Approach
All organizations need to achieve some relevant outcomes or results. A goal for many organizations is to be productive so this result orientation is a common thread woven through organizational behaviour. Productivity, at its simplest, is a ratio that compares the unit of output with the unit of input, often against a predetermined standard. If more outputs can be produced from the same amount of inputs then it means productivity is improved. But if few inputs are used to produce the same amount of output then it means productivity has not been increased. Productivity repeatedly is measured in terms of economic inputs and outputs, but human and social inputs/outputs are also important.
For example: If good organizational behaviour can improve job satisfaction, a human output or result occurs. In the same manner, employee development programs lead to a by-product of better citizens in a community and a valuable social result occurs.
4) Systems Approach
The systems approach of the theory of systems was first developed in physical science but has been extended to other areas, such as management. A system is an interrelated set of elements working as a whole. Treating an organization as a system is critically important for its success.
The basic components of the systems approach include:
i) There are many different elements within a system.
ii) All the parts of a system are interdependent. It means that one part may affect many other parts and thereafter it is affected by many others in a complex way.
iii) Many subsystems are altogether composed within a particularly large system.
iv) Systems generally require inputs, engage in some general processes, and thereafter produce output.
v) The input-process-output mechanism is cyclical and self-sustaining. It is an ongoing and repetitive process and thus, uses feedback to adjust itself.
vi) Systems may produce both positive and negative results.
vii) Systems produce both planned and accidental outcomes.
viii) The consequences of a system can be both short-term and long-term.
A general framework for viewing organizations as systems are shown in the figure:
An organizational system receives four kinds of inputs from its environment i.e. Material, Human, Financial, and Information. A manager then combines and transforms these inputs and returns them to the outside world in the form of products or services, profits or losses, employees’ behaviour, and additional information. Eventually, the system receives feedback from the environment concerning these outputs.
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