Contributing Disciplines to Organisational Behaviour – OB

Organisational Behaviour is an applied behavioural science based on contributions from numerous behavioural disciplines.  These contributing disciplines to organisational behaviour – ob is described as follows: Disciplines of OB:

  1. Psychology 
  2. Medicine 
  3. Sociology 
  4. Social psychology 
  5. Anthropology 
  6. Political Science
  7. Industrial Engineering 
  8. Economics 

Figure: Contributing disciplines of organisational behaviour

Disciplines contributing to organisational behaviour are given below:

1) Psychology

Psychology is a behavioural science that studies the behaviour of human beings in specific conditions and predicts how the individual will react in such conditions. Psychology with its various studies and theories has brought about an immense difference in human behaviour.  

Theories related to leadership, motivation, individual decision-making, attitude, ego state, learning, personality, performance appraisal, job satisfaction, training and development, work design, job stress, and conflict resolution have been taken from psychology itself. If used efficiently these theories can bring about changes in the attitude of employees and inculcate a positive approach towards the organization. 

Several psychological tests are also undertaken on the prospective employees during the hiring process which helps the managers to understand the employee’s thought process and attitude in a better manner. Apart from this, certain other aspects of human personality can also be measured with the help of this science.

The major contribution of psychology in the field of Organizational Behavior OB have been concerned are given below:

  1. Learning
  2. Personality
  3. Perception
  4. Individual decision-making
  5. Job satisfaction
  6. Motivation
  7. Attitude measurement
  8. Performance appraisal
  9. Work design
  10. Work strain
  11. Emotions
  12. Employee selected

Related Article:- Factors Affecting Recruitment

2) Medicine   

Medicine is an application of science that is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases so that the health of an individual can be improved. It includes healing of both physical as well as psychological diseases of the person. It observes an individual’s behaviour and lifestyle patterns while devising a strategy for the treatment of chronic diseases. This has led to the development of wellness programs from the perspective of commercial medicine and these programs have led to a more intense focus on employee health in the organization.

3) Sociology   

Sociology is a social science that examines the influence of culture on groups and helps managers to understand group dynamics, communication, customs, position, authority, group processes, conflict resolution, formal organization theory, and group decision-making. It is the study of social institutions, society, and social relationships. The main contributions of sociology to the field of organisational behaviour are as follows:

  1. Conflict
  2. Intergroup behaviour
  3. Formal organizational theory
  4. Organizational change
  5. Organizational culture
  6. Organizational technology
  7. Group dynamics
  8. Power
  9. Communication

4) Social Psychology

Organisations are a group of people with designated jobs and play an important role in developing human behaviour. Social psychology is a combination of psychology and sociology. It has helped in managing changes, decision-making, communicating, and developing skills to sustain social norms. The major contributions of social psychology to organisational behaviour OB are as follows:

  1. Group process
  2. Attitude change
  3. Group decision making
  4. Communication
  5. Behaviour change

5) Anthropology  

This field of applied science studies human behaviour in several cultures and environments to understand the differences between them. The study gained importance with the rise of globalization and merger and acquisitions of many companies on a global level. At the beginning of 21″ century, people from different countries and different backgrounds started working together under one roof. It is the manager’s responsibility to handle and control people from different ethnicities and guide their efforts in the direction suitable for the growth of the organization.   

Organizational behaviour teaches about the attitudes and transactions occurring in various cultures. Environmental studies under anthropology help in understanding human behaviour across cultures and mergers and acquisitions become easier.   It is the study of society to learn about human beings and their activities.

The major contributions of Anthropology in the field of organisational behaviour are as follows:

  1. Comparative values
  2. Organization culture
  3. Comparative attitudes
  4. Organization environment
  5. Cross-culture analysis

6) Political Science

A stable government helps businesses to grow internationally. A stable government at the national level promotes international business, financial investments, expansion, and employment. Rules and regulations formed by the government deeply influence the functioning and decision-making of organizations.   It is the study of the behaviour of people and groups within a political environment.   The main contribution of political science in the field of organisational behaviour has been concerned with:

  1. Conflict
  2. Power
  3. Intra-organizational policies

7) Industrial Engineering 

Engineering deals with the study of energy and matter and helps in understanding job design. In the early years of studying organizational behaviour, Fredrick Taylor took basic engineering ideas and applied them to human behaviour at work. Since Fredrick was from an engineering background, hence he gave special emphasis to human productivity and efficiency in work behaviour. He provided OB with the concept of performance standards i.e., a piece-rate system which was a huge contributor to the growth of organizations.

8) Economics 

Organisational climate is affected by the economic environment as well. Economic factors such as labour market dynamics, cost-benefit analysis, marginal utility analysis, human resource planning, forecasting, and decision-making also influence organizational behaviour.  

Determinants of Organisational Behaviour – OB

Key elements of organisational behaviour are shown in the figure below:

Determinants of Organisational Behaviour
Figure: Determinants of Organizational Behaviour – OB

Determinants of organisational behaviour are as follows:

Organizational behavior determinants are:

  • People
  • Structure
  • Technology
  • Environment

1) People

The internal social system of an organization is made up of the people who work in it. This comprises individuals, large/small groups, and informal/formal groups. It is the organization that exists to serve its people and not vice versa. Today’s organizations have changed and have become more diverse than before. Present-day employees come up with a broad range of talents, educational backgrounds, and perspectives. Hence, managers are required to transform themselves with the workforce to attain maximum efficiency.

2) Structure

Relationships and roles of people in the organization are defined by structure. People working in an organization perform different roles and have different relationships with each other. Division of work is done based on the capabilities and designation of the employees so that organizational goals are met efficiently. These may be managers, supervisors, clerks, etc. working in one direction to achieve the organizational goals in an organized manner. Authority-responsibility relationships are the essence of structure.

3) Technology

Technology plays a vital role in modern organizations. It empowers people for their work and also influences their activities. Since work cannot be done with empty hands i.e., without equipment, hence organizations use technology to build buildings, design machines, develop work processes and collect resources. Technology in turn helps people to perform better. But technology has some side effects like it is costly and limits people in certain ways i.e., it makes them dependent on machines. So, technology has both pros and cons.

4) Environment

Operations of all organizations take place under internal and external environments. An organization is a small part of a large system that contains elements such as government, family, and other organizations. Changes in the external environment affect individual organizations such as schools or factories. It also affects working conditions and people’s behaviour and provides a struggle for resources and power. Thus, organizations should adopt it while studying human behaviour.

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Questions:

1. What are the various contributing disciplines to ob?

2. What are the contributing disciplines of organizational behaviour?

3. Explain the discipline of organisational behaviour.

4. Explain the four models of organisational behaviour.

5. What are the determinants of organisational behaviour?

6. Discuss the role of contributing disciplines in organizational behaviour.

7. What are the disciplines contributing to organisational behaviour?

8. What are the contributing disciplines to organisational behaviour?

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