Definition of Training
According to Dale S. Beach, “Training is the organised procedure by which people learn knowledge and/or skill for a definite purpose”.
According to H. John Bernardin, “Training is an attempt to improve employee performance on a currently held job or one related to it” According to Edwin B. Flippo, “Training is an act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job”.
According to Planty, Cord and Efferson, “Training is the continuous, systematic development among all levels of employees of that knowledge and their skills and attitude which contribute to their welfare and that of the company”.
Features of Training
Features of training are as follows:
1) Specific Dimensions: Training is a procedure that has clear and definite dimensions. It has well-defined beginning and endpoints. Training activities are organised in such a manner that there is a noticeable progressive development and movement of the process itself. All the activities in the training process are coordinated cordially.
2) Planned Sequence of Events: Training is a planned series of activities that make it possible for the trainees to do things that they have not done earlier. The whole process is supported by the programme and has certain learning objectives.
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3) Makes Optimal Use of Opportunities for Learning: It can also be regarded as the process of providing ample opportunities for employees to learn and grow. It aims to increase the enthusiasm of the employees by polishing their skills to do a particular task.
4) Promotes Behavioural Changes: Training helps in bringing a positive change in the behaviour of employees by imparting special skills and helping them to perform better. It helps in improving the quality of the social and personal of employees, which enhances their work quality and leads to self-improvement. Thus, it expands its area of applicability much broader than the work environment.
5) Enhancing Capabilities: Training maybe not be restricted to acquiring a particular skill for doing a particular assigned task, but at the same time it is related to the development of the overall capability to manage complex situations and problems. A trainee should be aware of how to develop and by using his wisdom, to accomplish the given task efficiently.
6) Exploring the Inner Self: The most important aspect of the training is that it not only improves the existing skills but also explores the hidden talent within the employees and motivates them to perform well. It makes the employees aware of their strengths & weaknesses. It also aims to help the employees to overcome their weaknesses and directs them to self-development and growth.
7) Removes mental blocks: Training helps in clearing the doubts and insecurities of trainees about their job so that they can put their best possible effort to make maximum utilisation of their potential abilities.
8) Gives intended as well as unintended results: Training helps not only in achieving those benefits that are expected but sometimes it also yields many benefits which are not intentionally meant to be achieved. The benefit from the training may vary from organisation to organisation and individual to individual depending upon the type of training.
9) Establishes Relationship between Theory and Practice: Training makes it possible for the trainees to link the acquired theoretical knowledge and practical application of their knowledge. Training facilitates this by making the employees aware of the processes through which they can apply their learned capabilities to their work.
Scope of Training
The concept of training has a very broad scope and thus covers a variety of areas Some of them are as follows:
1) Training in Company Policies and Procedures: When new employees are appointed in any company, the first step taken by management is to familiarise them with the culture of the organization. The customs of the organisation include the rules and regulations to be followed, the people they have to work with their colleagues, superiors, the working environment, etc,. But the drawback of this training is that it does not have any impact on the development of an employee’s ability to speed up the organisational process.
2) Training in Particular Skills: Training, in particular, skills mainly focuses on the development of any specific ability of an employee related to his job. For example, induction training for newly recruited candidates in sales, production or mechanical skills, etc. The main objective of providing this training is to ensure a significant performance of a person by making him proficient.
3) Training in Human Relations Skills: This training has a great positive impact both on the individual and on the organisation. This training process concentrates on treating employees as human beings, not as machines and tries to mould their outlook and behaviour in such a way that the working conditions can be improved and made comfortable. This training not only helps the employees in enhancing their interpersonal skills and self-learning ability but also increases their efficiency, which in turn maximises the productivity of the organisation.
4) Training in Problem Solving Skills: As the name suggests, this training method is used to solve various organisational problems. Many organisations follow this training concept under which all the managed supervisors of different departments or branches are called upon at a particular place to discuss the concerned problems and their solutions. When they all come together they not only try to search out the best solution but also exchange their ideas and viewpoints which may prove to be beneficial for the organisation in the future. Training in Managerial and Supervisory Skills: If an organisation hires people for supervisory.
5)Training in Managerial and Supervisory Skills: If an organisation hires people for supervisory or managerial posts, obviously the management will prefer those candidates who have a particular set of skills required for that post. Technical and theoretical knowledge is mandatory for the position of manager. That is why several organisations provide training to the employees on basic management functions which include planning, organising, staffing, directing & controlling. Besides that, the people enlisted for the post of supervisors are given training in operation management, research and development, finance, manufacturing and human resources management, etc.
Need for Training
The need for training emerges due to the following reasons:
1) Match Job Criteria with Employee Specifications: An employee may not fulfil the exact requirements of the job and the organisation. He may be qualified enough when it comes to the respective experience or degree, but the requirements of the organisation may vary from the existing skills of the employees. Training is required to fill these wide gaps so that employees can perform their duties efficiently.
2) Organisational Sustainability and Transformation Process: The very basic purpose of every organisation is long term survival in the market. But organisational survival is affected by various factors. The organisation is required to adapt to the changes within the environment in which it is operating, or else its market share will decrease. The productivity of the organization can only be increased if the employees are capable enough to contribute to the innovative practices of the organisation. It can only be done by the appropriate provision of training for the employees. Training also helps in the smooth functioning of organisational processes and development. Organisational productivity can be enhanced by developing the effectiveness of the transformation process which is dependent on the improvement of the present level of competencies and knowledge of the employees, which can be achieved by their sufficient training.
3) Technical Progress: Nowadays, organisations are updating themselves in the field of technology, i.e., mechanisation, computerisation and automation regularly. If organisations will not adopt the modern method of working, they will be liable to become obsolete in the long term. On the other hand, technology alone will not work for better consequences, the people who will be responsible for managing and utilising the technology for the betterment are also required. Training is the method by which we can upgrade the skills of such people.
4) Complicated Nature of Organisation: As new technology is knocking on the doors of modern industry, the system of working in the modern organisation is becoming complex day by day. Employees are required to be more adaptable to the latest technique of organisational hierarchy. Organisational effectiveness can only be achieved by the provision of proper training so that the employees can act as change agents for the whole process of bringing organisational effectiveness.
5) Job Profile Modifications: It is a very common practice to promote or transfer one employee from one position to another. There is also a possibility that due to promotion or transfer the employee may be given a new job which may have some new roles and responsibilities. Training is required to train such employees so that they can discharge their responsibilities effectively in the long run.
6) Cordial Human Relations: There has been a tremendous change in the attitude of management toward their employees. Gone are the days when the employees were merely considered as one of the factors of production. Nowadays, for any organisation to be successful in the market in all aspects, maintaining healthy relations with their employees is equally important along with other important factors. Training equips the employees to deal with problems and to sustain a healthy environment of working.
Purposes of Training
The purposes of training are as follows:
1) To Increase Employee Efficiency: Training aims to increase the efficiency of the employee by imparting the skills needed to perform the task in a better way. It reduces the gap between the actual and desired performance.
2) To Upgrade Employee’s Skills: In this ever-changing environment of technical advancement, organisations are required to keep a close watch on the different activities and changes occurring within their environment. Here, the job of keeping the employee fully armed with the information and skill needed for the performance of a specific task becomes more necessary. Training is essential to keep the employee updated in advance and incorporate the technological changes in the systems and procedures of the organisation.
3) To Avoid or Delay Managerial Obsolescence: If there is no initiative taken on the part of the managers in adopting the recent trends of technology, it will be considered a failure of the management to cope with the changes within the environment. This failure also reduces organisational performance. Hence, training aims to avoid such situations in the organisation.
4) To Prepare Employees for Undertaking Higher Positions: Training generally aims to prepare the employees to handle more responsibilities by imparting additional skills required for the performance of challenging tasks. It increases the confidence of employees to perform in a better way.
5) To Reduce the Employee Turnover: Training aims to reduce the employee attrition rate by simply infusing enthusiasm and motivating them to perform their job smoothly. At the same time, employees rest assured about their career progress. Training stimulates and restores dedication among the employees for the organisation. Thus, managers are supposed to facilitate proper training programmes, especially for bright employees.
6) To Achieve Organisational Excellence: Training sharpens the existing skills of the employees which ultimately results in better performance of the employees, reduced rate of accidents, lower breakdowns of the machines and ultimately a more competitive organisation with a proficient workforce. All these factors enhance organisational sustainability by creating a poor or educated and skilled workforce who can help the organisation in managing the competitive edge.
The scope of training and development has expanded to include cross-cultural training, focus on the development of the individual employee, and the use of new organization development literature to frame training programs.
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