Methods of training

Methods of training – On the job and Off the job

Table of Contents:-

Methods of Training

Organizations and trainers worldwide have intensively explored ways and means to improve training methods. A trainer may use various methods of training to sustain participants’ interests, provide variety in training delivery, and maintain the momentum of the training process. There are several training methods, and each method is inherently better. Hence, a combination of methods is used, depending on the subject, resources, time, and type of participants.

Training Methods

Methods of Training: The organisation makes a lot of investment every year in various training and development programmes for their employees. The main purpose of the organisation for doing so is to augment the productivity of the company by enhancing the skills and knowledge of the employees. At one point or another, the need for training arises, as the possibility of getting the most eligible and trained person every time is very low. 

Thus, to make the employees skilful, training is provided to them by using various training methods. These training methods not only motivate the employees to develop their skills but also prepare them to meet the upcoming organisational demands. Thus, companies adopt various methods to train their employees. Some of them are as follows:

Methods of training


On the job training methods are based on the concept of learning by doing. In this method, trainees are provided with real job settings to do their jobs. In some situations, they are given sole responsibility to handle the issues on their own and this is how they learn by doing their task. Also, the new employees gain knowledge of what is to be done from the existing employees and improve their skills under the guidance of experienced ones. This type of training method has become very popular and is used by most corporations. 

Some of the crucial ON THE JOB training methods are discussed below:

1) Job Instruction Training (JIT)

Under this training process, trainees are given instructions systematically one by one. These instructions are given by experienced trainers who are well-known for the techniques and procedures to be used and the functions to be performed during the job. In this training method, the learners first observe their instructors while performing the task and then follow them by performing the task on their own. This helps the trainers to easily point out the faults committed by the trainees and rectify them as soon as possible.

2) Apprenticeship

It follows the principle of “earning while learning”. In this method, an expert and an experienced person give his knowledge and skills to the trainee who desires to learn that skill. Once the trainee has completed an apprenticeship programme, the trainee can apply for a permanent job if there is any.

Related Article: Types of training

3) Job Rotation

It is that process in which the employees are allowed to perform the functions of other departments in the organisation. When the employees are rotated from one department to another department or from one division to another division, they gain new knowledge and experience about the different jobs performed by different people in the organisation. 

Job rotation takes place either in the form of promotions in which the employees are promoted from a lower level to a higher level or in the form of lateral transfers, in which only the job responsibility changes, but not the position of the employee. Thus, this training method is the best way to transform an employee into an expert.

4) Coaching

The guidance given by the superiors of the organisation to their subordinates is called coaching. Besides being an unofficial and unplanned training method, it improves the bonding between the employees and their superiors. 

The senior manager acts as a coach or instructor and guides the employees on how to perform the task and how the mistakes can be rectified. Later, they also evaluate the performance of these employees.

Related Article: Training Needs Assessment

5) Understudy

It is the method of preparing the trainees to perform the responsibilities of their trainer or to occupy the position of their senior in future. In this method, when the superior or manager is about to get separated from the organisation due to the reasons of transfers, resignation, retirement etc., his position is allotted to that employee who has received training under him. This method is different from coaching in the sense that the manager can select employees from his department for understudy.

6) Mentoring

In this method, training is given by a specialised and experienced person. In organisations, mentoring is usually done by senior employees who try to enhance the skills of junior employees. Many organisations use mentoring as a nurturing tool that fosters the understanding and proficiency of their employees.


Unlike on the job training methods, off the job training methods are not based on the concept of learning by doing but follow the rule of learning by gaining knowledge. Under this method, the trainees are called upon in a classroom which may be situated inside the company or some outside place such as institutes or centres to provide the training. 

Because of the outside location, trainees can learn freely without the stress of job work. The main focus of this guidance is to improve the knowledge of the new employees. 

Some of the well-known off the job training methods are as follows:

1) Lectures

When there is a requirement of imparting technical knowledge to new employees; the lecture method proves to be the best way to clear the notion, ideas, and hypothesis to the trainee. It is a one-way communication method in which the mentor collects the entire relevant data for the trainees and conveys a lecture using various teaching aids such as models, chart papers, visual aids, audio aids, etc. Thus, it is the simplest method of providing knowledge to the trainees.

2) Simulations

This training method depicts a real-life situation of the job that may have happened in the organisation in the past such as damage to any valuable thing, any serious enquiry that may have adversely affected the company, or any mistake that had cost the company a lot, etc. Several realistic examples can be shown to the trainees to prepare them to handle the situations accordingly. 

By this, the organisation prepares the trainees well in advance about what may happen on the job and how they have to deal with these types of situations. This method is used in those industries where on the job training can be expensive or destructive such as the aeronautical industry.

3) Case Study

Under this method, the real business cases are framed and they are provided to trainees. Trainees have to discuss it and give their ideas of how they would have tackled that situation. This method is called the case study method and is one of the very common ways of imparting knowledge based on actual business situations.

4) Role-Play

In this method, trainees are provided with an imaginary or real problem that is generally concerned with the organisation. They are asked to assume the identity of a particular person and behave as if they are in that particular situation. To enhance their managerial skills, employees can make use of various visual aids and tips given by their mentors while executing their performance.

5) In-Basket Exercise

In this method, the trainee is given all the relevant things like letters, reports, records, etc. that are needed by managers. The trainee is given a specific situation that managers confront regularly. He is asked to assess the situation, prioritise things, justify his reasons and give the final decision on the issues raised during the exercise. 

The exercise gives the manager a snapshot of the learner’s ability to perform executive functions and roles in the job. The whole exercise is video-recorded and the concerned candidates are tested on the grounds of the proposed set of skills and abilities such as problem-solving ability, time management, etc.

6) Conferences

A structured method of communicating thoughts to a large number of audiences who are attending the event is called a conference. Experts from specific fields come together to share their views on a common topic and also obtain answers to their questions if they have any.

7) Seminar

Another word for ‘Seminar” is “Seed Plot” which means it is a base ground for gaining knowledge. These are conducted by experienced and expert people who not only prepare the topic of discussion and deliver it in front of learners but also help them to share their ideas and explore their views on the topic of discussion. Since it is focused on any particular topic, learners can understand things more clearly and respond effectively.

8) Group Discussion

It is one of the very common training methods adopted by numerous organisations. Under this method, a topic is given to the group of trainees and they are asked to actively participate in it and give their outlook on the issue. The discussion topic is given on the spot and thus, no time is given to the trainees to prepare the topic. 

This method not only helps in solving the problem related to an organisation but also creates a higher rate of interest and enthusiasm among the trainees as they can share good experiences and gain new ideas and knowledge about the subject.

9) Sensitivity Training

Sensitivity training, as by name is very clear that this training is related to emotions and sentiments. It is also called T-group training or laboratory training. The assessment is based on the behaviour of one for the other. This training is carried out to make employees aware of and respect the feelings and emotions of other co-trainees.

10) Syndicates

The syndicate training method has proved to be very useful for training higher management. In this training method, the employees form a group and get united to execute any particular function. This method includes numerous groups who work together to achieve the organisational training goals.

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