Table of Content
- Types of Interviews
- 1) Preliminary Interview
- 2) Core Interview
- 3) Decision-Making Interview
- Advantages of Interviews
- Disadvantages of Interviews
An interview is a method used for selection purposes, which allows an employer to view the overall personality of an individual and openly review his behaviour. The interview is a mode of making face-to-face contact to acquire a basic idea about the personality of an applicant identifying his intelligence, span of interests, and general attitude towards life.
According to Scott, “An interview is a purposeful exchange of ideas, the answering of questions and communication between two or more persons”.
In simple words, an interview can be described as an effort to obtain maximum information about the candidate regarding his fitness for the job.
Types of Interviews
There are various types of interviews, which are used for obtaining various kinds of information and to evaluate the candidate’s skills, knowledge, etc., at a variety of bases. Employment interviews can be categorised into the following types:
1) Preliminary Interview
A preliminary interview is a conversation between the candidate and the personnel manager regarding the basic aspects of the job such as job characteristics, working conditions, salary, and other benefits, etc. This helps an organisation in removing useless people and helps the candidate decide whether or not to accept or reject the job. Preliminary interviews can be divided into the following types:
i) Informal Interview
An informal interview can be conducted at any place by HR personnel to obtain fundamental and non-job-related information.
ii) Unstructured Interview
An unstructured interview provides freedom to the candidates so that they can reveal their knowledge in various topics/fields, their backgrounds, expectations, interests, etc. Likewise, the interviewer is also allowed to share information on various topics enquired by the candidate.
2) Core Interview
Core interviews are generally a communication between the candidate and the line manager or on different areas of job knowledge, skills, talent, etc. Core interviews can be divided into the following types:
i) Background Information Interview
These interviews are aimed at gathering information which cannot be obtained through the application form. It is also used to verify the information which is collected through the application form such as educational background, domicile, family, health, interests, hobbies, likes, dislikes, extracurricular activities, etc. of the applicant.
ii) Stress Interview
A stress interview is designed for evaluating the candidate’s behaviour at the job and the survival level during the time of pressure or stress, i.e., his pressure-handling capacity. In this kind of interview, the candidate is put in aggressive, apathetic or threatening situations, whose objective is to demoralise the candidate and check his ability to deal with difficult situations.
iii) Formal and Structured Interview
Formal and structured interviews strictly follow all the formalities and procedures related to conducting of interview such as determination of value, time, a panel of interviewers, opening and closing, informing the candidates officially, etc. They are pre-planned and organised, based on job requirements.
iv) Panel Interview
Panel interviews include a panel of specialists to interview every candidate, evaluate their performance separately and form a combined decision based on evaluation by every specialist and by way of giving weightage to each factor.
v) Group Interview
A group interview is a special situation for interviewing a candidate where numerous candidates are called for an interview at the same time. For example, in cases, where there are a large number of candidates for interview on the same day, group interview facilitates the interviewers with the capability to evaluate a large number of candidates. It is also a time-saving tool for the organisation Group interview also provides an opportunity to evaluate the behaviour of a candidate in a group.
vi) Job and Probing Interview
Job and probing interviews are mainly designed for evaluating the candidate’s knowledge concerning duties, functions, job methods, critical problems, ways to resolve those problems, etc.
vii) Depth Interview
Depth interviews are the type of interviews in which a candidate is evaluated mainly in the core areas of knowledge and skills of the job. Candidates are evaluated by the experts in their respective fields by putting up appropriate questions to obtain significant responses from them while initiating the discussion about some complex areas of the job, and by asking them to describe even minute activities of the job performance.
3) Decision-Making Interview
A decision-making interview is another kind of interview taken by the concerned departmental head. Generally, this kind of interview is conducted through informal discussion. The HR manager is also supposed to take interview the candidate to take his decision concerning salary, allowances, benefits, promotions, etc. The departmental head and the HR manager exchange their views thereafter they mutually intimate the interview head about their decision. The head of the interview board takes the final decision about the candidate’s performance and his respective rank in the interview.
Advantages of Interviews
The interview is advantageous for both employers and job seekers:
The advantages of interviews for employers are as follows:
i) Provides Information about the Job-Seeking Candidate: An interview helps an employer in gathering complete information about the candidate looking for the job. An interview obtains information about an individual about his cultural and educational background, work experience, intelligence quotient, communication skills, personality type, interests, social behaviour, etc.
ii) Helps to Select the Right Candidate: An interview facilitates the face-to-face conversation between the interviewer with the candidates. Thus, an interviewer can take an accurate decision about the selection or rejection of the candidate. A personal interview is the best option to be used by interviewers while selecting the right person for the right job.
iii) Improves Goodwill of Employers: An interview acts as a public-relations tool. An interview must be administered properly in a congenial environment. The candidates called for interviews should be dealt with dignity and respect. There should be an effort towards making the candidate feel happy about the employer, irrespective of being selected or rejected. This will enhance the employer’s image. Thus, a good interview session always adds to the goodwill of the employer.
iv) Helps in Promotions and Transfers: An interview helps an employer in assessing his staff for promotions, transfers, etc.
2) Job Seekers
The advantages of interviews for job seekers are as follows:
i) Provides Employment Opportunity: An interview helps the job seeker by providing an employment opportunity. It aids a candidate in presenting and conveying his vision, beliefs and thoughts to the employer.
ii) Helps Candidates to Accept or Reject the Job: An interview helps the candidate by providing information about the job and the employer. A candidate is thus, aware of the compensation, perks and allowances, working conditions, job security, chances of promotions and transfers, and other employment benefits if any. An interview provides an opportunity for the candidate to clear all his/her doubts about the job. This also helps him in taking a sensible decision for his career regarding accepting or rejecting the job, if offered.
iii) Helps Job Seekers to Increase Contacts: An interview allows the candidate to build contacts with the interviewer and other candidates as well. So, in case, where a candidate is rejected in his very first effort of a job hunt, then these contacts perhaps can help him in succeeding efforts.
Disadvantages of Interviews
The disadvantages of interviews are as follows:
1) Expensive: Biggest disadvantage of the interview is that it is expensive in terms of time and money.
2) Subject to Bias and Personal Traits: Another disadvantage is that sometimes, an interview gets affected negatively by how questions are asked by the interviewer, his way of interaction, false recording, and at the same time by the respondent’s wrong perception, defective memories, lack of expression, etc.
3) Ineffective in Some Areas: Face-to-face interviews are often incapable of gathering personal and financial information. Such kind of information may be obtained through mail questionnaires, especially if, there is no compulsion to undersign it.
4) Recording Complexities: An interview has a disadvantage as it causes the problem of recording information collected from the candidates. For this purpose, there is no proper facility. Note-taking is supposed to be a distraction for both the interviewee and the interviewer as it interrupts the flow of conversation.
5) Demands Skilled Interviewers: An interview requires a set of highly skilled interviewers, whose availability is limited and the time and cost spent on their training and development is also high.
6) Subjective: Sometimes, there are chances of personal biasness in the case of a personal interview. This problem also may take place, if the investigators are doing partiality and are trying to leak the possible answers to the candidates.
7) Difficulty in Analysis: The results of an interview are very difficult to be analysed because of the subjective nature of the information as well as distortion in the communication.