Table of Contents:
- Importance of Recruitment
- Meaning of Recruitment
- What is the meaning of recruitment?
- Definition of Recruitment
- Features of Recruitment
- Difference between Recruitment and Selection
- Types of Recruitment
- New Trends in Recruitment
- Recruitment policy
- Functions of Recruitment
Recruitment plays an important role in the success of every organization. It is a process of attracting, selecting, and appointing qualified people to fill vacant jobs within a company. The importance of recruitment cannot be overstated, as it directly impacts the overall performance and growth of an organization.
Importance of Recruitment
An organization must understand the importance of recruitment as it helps in shaping the workforce and the future of an organization. It highlights its role in talent acquisition, cultural development, and overall organizational effectiveness.
The importance of recruitment is as follows:
1. Attract and encourage a good number of candidates to apply for the organisational vacancies.
2. It creates a talent pool of prospective candidates that enables the selection of the most suitable candidates to suit the organisation’s needs.
3. Determine present and future organisational requirements taking into consideration personnel planning and job analysis activities.
4. Links the employers with the potential employees.
5. Increase potential candidates’ pool at less cost.
6. Increases the success rate of the selection process by reducing the number of underqualified or overqualified job applicants.
7. Reduce the probability of leaving the organisation only after a short period, once recruited and selected.
8. It meets the organization’s social and legal obligations for maintaining its workforce composition.
9. It determines the suitability of candidates by effectively identifying and equipping potential job applicants.
10. Increase organizational and individual effectiveness regarding the implementation of diverse hiring techniques and harnessing various recruitment sources.
What is Recruitment?
Recruitment involves developing and maintaining adequate manpower sources and creating a pool of available human resources from which the organization can draw when it needs additional employees. It is the process of attracting applicants with specific skills, abilities, and other personal characteristics to job vacancies in an organization.
According to Denerley and Plumblay (1969), recruitment involves both attracting the necessary number of people and assessing their quality. It is not only a matter of satisfying a company’s needs but also an activity that influences the shape of the company’s future. The need for recruitment may arise from vacancies due to promotion, transfer, termination, retirement, permanent disability, or death, as well as the creation of vacancies due to business expansion, diversification, growth, and so on.
Meaning of Recruitment
Recruitment can be defined as the process of finding prospective candidates for filling actual or projected in an organisation. It enables the organization to obtain the number and types of people required for its continuous work.
Normally, it is an effort to gain the interest of the candidates looking for jobs, find the candidates interested in the job and create a group of potential employees, with the help of which the management can choose the suitable person for the job.
What is the meaning of recruitment?
The Process of Recruitment is one of the most significant aspects of operating a business successfully. The quality of the workers determines the performance of an organisation, and therefore, individuals who effectively manage all the functions of the organisation are more suitable for it.
Even though changes can be brought in some incompetent employees by training and rigorous supervision, the appointment of capable and passionate people is undoubtedly preferred.
By appointing the right person in the right position, a great amount of time, energy, and money can be saved. Therefore, a manager must recruit high-quality employees to fulfil organisational needs.
Recruiting practices differ from one organisation to another. Some organisations like public sector banks adopt centralised recruitment whereas others resort to recruitment. Under centralised recruitment, the human resource department at the head office performs all the necessary recruiting functions. Every operating department submits indents or requisitions for recruitment to its central office. On the other hand, each department carries out its recruiting in case of decentralised recruitment.
Centralised recruitment offers the following advantages:
(a) It refers to the administrative cost of centralizing all staffing activities in one place.
(b) It helps in better and improved utilisation of specialists.
(c) It ensures uniformity in the selection and staffing of all types of employees.
(d) It facilitates the interchangeability of staff between different units or zones.
(e) It relieves the line executive of the staffing burden thereby enabling them to focus their efforts on operational activities. It tends to reduce favouritism and make the process of recruitment more scientific.
Centralised recruitment suffers from the following disadvantages:
(i) There is a delay in staffing as operating units cannot recruit staff as and when required.
(ii) The central office may not be fully conversant with the most appropriate sources for job requirements for various units, nor may it know the most appropriate sources for obtaining the required staff.
(iii) Staffing is not flexible in nature as the operating units lose control over the hiring process.
Both Centralized and decentralized recruitment have their unique advantages. The decision to utilize one over the other ultimately depends on the management philosophy and needs of the particular organisation. In some cases, a hybrid approach incorporating elements of both systems may be used. Hiring of Lower level staff is done centrally whereas top-level and middle-level executives are recruited in a decentralised manner.
Related Article:- Sources of Recruitment
Definition of Recruitment
According to Edwin B. Flippo, “Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation“.
Kempner writes, “Recruitment forms the first stage in the process which continues with selection and ceases with the placement of the candidates.”
According to Barber, “Recruitment includes those practices and activities carried out by the organisation with the primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees”.
Joseph J. Famularo has said, “However, the act of hiring a man carries with it the presumption that he will stay with the company that sooner or later his ability to perform his work, his capacity for job growth, and his ability to get along in the group in which he works will become matters of first importance.”
According to Dale Yoder, “Recruitment is a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force”.
Related Article:- Factors Affecting Recruitment
Features of Recruitment
Some significant features of recruitment are as follows:
1) Positive Function: It is considered to be a positive function as it creates a pool of qualified candidates from which the most appropriate candidates can be chosen.
2) Continuous Process: It is a managerial and ongoing process as it does not involve a single activity but a series of activities.
3) Linking Activity: It brings together the employer and the employees and hence is considered to be a linking activity.
4) Pervasive Function: It is an activity that takes place in every organisation and, therefore is a pervasive function, however, its volume and nature differ according to the type and size of the organisation.
5) Two-Way Process: It is a two-way process that involves a recruiter and a recruitee. Both of them have their own choices, the recruiter can choose whom to select and the recruitee has the choice of selecting the organisation in which he wants to work.
6) Complex Job: It is a complicated process as many factors may restrict the freedom of management during the hiring process.
Difference between Recruitment and Selection
So far, you have learned about the meaning, importance, sources, methods, and process of recruitment. Now, let’s delve into recruitment vs. selection and the new trends in recruitment. Both recruitment and selection are two different phases of the employment process. The differences between the two are given as follows:
1. Recruitment is the process of searching for candidates for employment and motivating them to apply for jobs in the organization. In contrast, selection involves a series of steps to screen candidates and choose the most suitable individuals for vacant posts.
2. The basic purpose of recruitment is to create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of the best candidates for the organization. This is achieved by attracting more and more employees to apply to the organization. On the other hand, the basic purpose of the selection process is to choose the right candidate to fill various positions in the organization.
3. Recruitment encourages more and more candidates to apply, whereas selection involves the rejection of unsuitable candidates.
4. Recruitment is concerned with collecting sources of human resources, whereas selection is concerned with selecting the most suitable candidates through various interviews and tests.
5. There is no contract of recruitment, whereas selection results in a contract of service between the employer and the selected candidate.
Types of Recruitment
By incorporating these various onboarding methods an organization can enhance its ability to attract and select the most qualified candidates. By adopting a professional and strategic approach to enlistment, businesses can build a talented and diverse workforce.
- Recruiting a more diverse workforce
- Executive recruiter
- Principles of help wanted advertising
- Campus recruiting
- Using government job service
- Computerized employee database
- Referral and walk-ins as a source of candidates
- Online hiring
New Trends in Recruitment
Many companies are moving away from traditional recruitment methods. The new methods followed by companies include outsourcing, poaching/raiding, and e-recruitment.
Outsourcing is the process of transferring a business function to an external service provider. In recruitment outsourcing, a company completely transfers the selection process or a part of it to a third party. Outsourcing firms assist the organization by initially screening candidates according to the organization’s needs and creating a suitable pool of talent for final selection. These firms develop their human resource pool by employing individuals, making them available to various companies based on their needs.
Raiding or poaching is a recruitment method in which competing firms attract employees from rival companies. In simple terms, poaching may be described as buying talent rather than developing it. Hefty pay packages and other favourable terms and conditions may entice employees to join new organizations. Poaching poses a challenge for human resource managers as it weakens the competitive strength of organizations due to employee migration.
E-recruitment is the latest trend in recruitment, also known as online recruitment. The internet serves as the backbone for E-Recruitment. Companies advertise job vacancies on different websites, and exclusive job platforms like naukri.com, monster.com, etc., facilitate contact between job seekers and companies. These job sites provide 24×7 access to a database of resumes for employers which enables organizations to employ people fast.
Every company website typically includes a ‘career’ hyperlink, allowing job seekers to upload their resumes. Companies can use the uploaded resumes to build their own database, utilized for current and future requirements. Online recruitment helps organizations automate the recruitment process by saving their time and money.
Recruitment policy may encompass a commitment to broad principles, such as filling vacancies with the best-qualified individuals. It may address various issues, including the extent of promotion from within, the enterprise’s attitude toward recruiting its former employees, considerations for handicaps, minority groups, women employees, part-time employees, friends, and relatives of present employees. The recruitment policy might also involve the organizational system to be developed for implementing the recruitment program and procedures.
A well-considered and pre-planned recruitment policy, based on corporate goals, an analysis of the environment, and corporate needs, can prevent hasty or ill-considered decisions and contribute significantly to staffing the organization with the right type of personnel. A robust recruitment policy should include the following elements:
- Organization’s objectives – both short-term and long-term.
- Identification of recruitment needs.
- Preferred sources of recruitment.
- Criteria for selection and preferences.
- The cost of recruitment and the financial implications of the same.
In its most general sense, a recruitment policy involves a commitment by the employer to:
(i) Find the best-qualified persons for each job.
(ii) Retain the best and most promising of those employed.
(iii) Offer promising opportunities for lifetime working careers.
(iv) Provide programs and facilities for personal growth on the job.
Functions of Recruitment
The function of recruitment is to locate the sources of manpower to meet job requirements and specifications. Recruitment forms the first stage in the process, which continues with selection and ceases with the placement of the candidate. The effective supply of varied categories of candidates for filling the jobs will depend upon several factors such as the state of the labour market, the reputation of the enterprise, and allied factors. The internal factors include wage and salary policies, the age composition of the existing workforce, promotion and retirement policies, turnover rates, and the kind of personnel required. External determinants of recruitment are economic, cultural, and legal factors. Recruitment has been considered the most important function of personnel administration. Unless the right type of people are hired, organisational charts, even the best plans and control systems will be of no avail. A company cannot grow, prosper, or even survive without adequate human resources. The need for trained manpower in recent years has created pressure on some organizations to establish an efficient recruitment function.
Assessment and Improvement of Recruitment
The recruitment activity is intended to attract the right people at the right time. It focuses on drawing individuals whose personalities, interests, and preferences are most likely to align with the organization and who possess the skills, knowledge, and abilities to perform effectively.
Many companies believe that attracting and retaining staff primarily revolves around monetary factors. Rewards and benefits are the two fundamental elements that entice individuals to work for a company, and these manifest in two forms:
- Tangible (e.g., monetary) and
- Intangible (e.g., training, career paths, working environment).
However, in the recruitment process, people often overly prioritize the salary issue, occasionally overlooking the more crucial aspect of finding the right candidate for the job. It’s imperative to recognize that the process begins with employing the correct hiring methods.
Recruitment practices vary from one organization to another. Some organizations adopt centralized recruitment, while others opt for decentralized recruitment. Both systems have their merits and demerits. Therefore, management must carefully evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each system before making a final decision regarding whether to centralize or decentralize recruitment.
In addition to considering qualifications and experience, other personality traits such as eagerness to learn and adapt, independence, and creativity are equally important. Besides possessing a logical and analytical mind, individuals need to be willing to take risks and not be afraid of failure.
Organizations typically don’t face difficulty in finding adequate employees for manual, clerical, sales, and general types of work. However, they often encounter challenges in obtaining the professional and managerial talent they require. The increasing complexity and sophistication of technology necessitate a growing number of professionals and managers to run modern enterprises. The long-term solution to the shortage of personnel in these fields involves private organizations, government, and society initiating programs to channel more young individuals into these professions and providing additional financial support to students and educational institutions. In the short term, organizations facing a shortage of qualified talent must resort to aggressive recruiting efforts through techniques such as advertising, campus recruitment, and engaging with management consulting firms.
Manpower managers must continually review and enhance recruitment methods and sources of manpower supply. Any method or source that is highly effective presently may become ineffective later due to changed situations. However, many managers fail to develop a long-term recruiting program through careful assessment. A sound recruitment program requires an appraisal of each source and technique based on the relative qualities of the personnel it has provided. For each major job category, the current personnel can be evaluated in terms of job success. The evaluation procedure involves assessing existing employees in terms of their job success, determining the sources from which “good” and “poor” employees come, and evaluating the methods used.
Manpower managers should consistently strive to enhance their recruitment system. The assessment of results or challenges encountered during the recruitment process may indicate the need for program improvement. A method to enhance recruiting is to evaluate the enterprise as a candidate would and take appropriate measures to improve its image. Furthermore, recruitment activities should be integrated with the human resource plans of the organization.
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