Study of Job Satisfaction and Its Implications for Motivating Employees


Project report on job satisfaction


Abstract: The major endeavour of the study is to find out the job satisfaction among employees. To know the employee’s view about the job and come up with suggestions for the organization to perk up the level of job contentment. The findings were that employees esteemed the work relationships and healthy working surroundings the most when it comes to job satisfaction. The outcome suggested that the organization should look towards building long-term relationships with the employees by worthwhile the admirable employees and providing them with the reward that is as per the organization’s principles.

Key Words: Job Satisfaction, Job Security, Job Rotation, Dissatisfaction, Motivation


INTRODUCTION:

Job satisfaction has been linked to many variables, including efficiency, absence, revenue, etc. It is significant because a person’s attitude and values may affect his behaviour, attitude and belief may cause a person to work harder or the opposite may occur and he may work less. Job satisfaction study often focuses on the various parts that are believed to be important, since these jobs related attitudes influence an employee to behave in a certain way. It also affects general well-being.

As a result, a person is dissatisfied with their work; this could lead to dissatisfaction in other areas of life. Keeping workers happy helps to strengthen an organization in many ways.
Investigated by several disciplines such as psychology, sociology, economics, and management, job satisfaction is a subject in work and organizational literature. This is because many experts believe that job satisfaction drift can affect employment market behaviour and influence work productivity, work efforts, employee absenteeism, and staff -turnover. Furthermore, job satisfaction is considered a strong analyst of overall individual well-being, as well as a good prophet of intention or decisions of employees to leave a job. Job satisfaction describes how happy an individual is with his job. There are a variety of factors that can manipulate a person’s level of job satisfaction. Some of these factors include the level of pay and benefits, the seeming fairness to the promotion system within a company, the quality of the working conditions, leadership and social relationships, and the job itself.


Job satisfaction is one of the important factors which have drawn the attention of managers in the organization as well as academicians. Various studies have been conducted to find out the factors which determine job satisfaction and the way it influences productivity in the organization. Though there is no conclusive evidence that job satisfaction affects productivity directly because productivity depends on so many variables, it is still a prime concern for managers. Job satisfaction is the mental feeling of favorableness’ that an individual has about his job.
 


OBJECTIVE OF STUDY:
1 
   1. To determine the parameter that influences job satisfaction in the organization.

2 2. To determine the present level of satisfaction of the employees on parameters recognized.

3 3. To outline the major trend and correlation regarding job satisfaction.

4  4. To determine the vow that the employees have for a long-term career with the organization.

5  5. To know where the employees rate their organization on the parameter related to job satisfaction.

6  6. To sign up the parameter that the organization can look up and make related advice.

7  7. To find out the satisfaction level of employees. 

8 8. To find out the level of the good relationship between Employee satisfaction and organizational commitment. 

9 9. To identify important factors of the employee satisfaction and organizational commitment of the employee.



REVIEW OF LITERATURE:

 One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne studies. These studies (1924-1933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School, required to find the effects of a variety of conditions (most notably illumination) on workers’ productivity. These studies eventually showed that novel changes in work conditions provisionally increase output (called the Hawthorne Effect). It was later found that this adds to results, not from the new conditions, but from the knowledge of being experiential. This finding provided strong confirmation that people work for purposes other than pay, which cemented the way for researchers to examine other factors in job satisfaction. Scientific management also had an important collision on the study of job satisfaction. 

Frederick Winslow Taylor’s 1911 book, Principles of Scientific Management, argues that there was a solitary best way to perform any given work task. This book contributes to a transformation in industrial production philosophies, causing a shift from expert labour and piecework towards the more modern approach of meeting lines and hourly wages. The initial use of scientific management by industry greatly increased output because workers were forced to work at a faster pace. However, workers became exhausted and dissatisfied, thus leaving researchers with new questions to answer regarding job satisfaction. It should also be noted that the work of W.L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott, and Hugo Munsterberg set the quality for Taylor’s work. 

Some disagree that Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory, laid the foundation for job satisfaction theory. This theory explains that people look to satisfy five specific needs in life – physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-worth needs, and self-actualization. This model serves as a good basis from which early researchers could develop job satisfaction theories.

Jane Boucher (2004) offers practical advice for improving both your attitude about your job and the job itself. She shows workers how to cope with keeping their jobs in this difficult economy. Chris Stride, Toby D. Wall, and Nick Canley (2008) presented widely used measurement scales of Job Satisfaction, Mental Health, Job-related Well-being, and Organizational Commitment, along with benchmarking data for comparison. The benchmarking data is based on a sample of almost 60,000 respondents from 115 different organizations across a wide spectrum of industries and occupations. Information is given by the occupational group and is further broken down by age and gender. Joanna Penn (2008) teaches how to improve your position in your current employment, gain more from your job, and discover more about yourself and what it is you would be happy doing stress management, and people management. Ervin Seen (2007) examined in terms of industry and staff size as well as employee age and gender more than 20 indicators of job satisfaction including career-advancement opportunities, benefits, the flexibility to balance life and work, and compensation. Elwood Chapman (1993) helps to determine employee level of satisfaction and then assists in making positive changes to increase both satisfaction level and quality of work. Patricia Buhler and Jason Scott (2009) present an academic argument for building an employee-centred culture. They also examined a real-world case study of a company that has experienced the economic benefits of this practice, making it abundantly clear that modern businesses can’t afford to make employee satisfaction a top priority
 


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

The following are the methods and techniques adopted for the collection of data and for their analysis in this study. Collection of data and tabulation: Data used for this study was from a minor source. A job satisfaction questionnaire consisting of 17 main questions was drafted and circulated. 


The 17 questions were divided into the following sections:

1. Personal particulars

2. Employment facts

3. Work Condition particulars

4. Salary and promotion opportunities related particulars

5. Work relationships facts

 6. Work activities and role performed information

7. Practice skills and abilities details

 8. Rating the parameters that verify job satisfaction

 9. Ranking the organization on various parameter

10. Promise towards a long-term career with the company

Editing, classification, and tabulation of the financial data collected from the above-mentioned sources have been done as per the requirement of the study


Sample Population: 20 employees       



 DATA COLLECTION AND TABULATION:
 
 
1. Job Satisfaction based on Work Conditions:

 

Very dissatisfied

Dissatisfied

Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied

Satisfied

Very satisfied

Number of hours worked each week

1

4

8

8

0

Flexibility in scheduling assigned tasks

2

8

4

6

0

Current Location of work

0

2

2

10

7

Sick Leaves and paid vacation offered

3

5

9

5

        6

 


2. Job Satisfaction based on Salary and promotion opportunities related details:

 

Very dissatisfied

Dissatisfied

Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied

Satisfied

Very satisfied

Salary

1

4

8

8

0

Opportunities for promotion

2

8

4

6

0

Other Benefits (health insurance, life insurance)

0

2

2

10

7

Job Security

3

5

9

5

        6

 


3. Job Satisfaction based on Work relationships details:

 

Very dissatisfied

Dissatisfied

Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied

Satisfied

Very satisfied

Relationships with your coworkers

0

3

5

7

7

Relationships with your superiors

0

6

2

5

0

Relationships with your subordinates

0

5

9

9

6

Overall Teamwork within the department

1

3

4

6

        4




4. Job Satisfaction based on Usage of skills and abilities details:

 

Very dissatisfied

Dissatisfied

Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied

Satisfied

Very satisfied

Opportunity to utilize your skills and talent

0

2

4

9

5

Opportunity to learn new skills

3

5

4

6

1

Support for additional training and education

0

9

2

5

4

 

 
 DATA  ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 

Data, whicis gatherebadministering questionnaires, was processed simply to determine the level of satisfaction among employees. Every response was assigned some score based on this overall satisfaction level was determinedData collecteis carefulltabulateand analyzeby using satisfaction methods and also various graphs are used.

 
DATA ANALYSIS
 

1.   How many employees were satisfied with the wages paid to them?
 

·                    Fully satisfied – 70%

·                    Partially satisfied – 18%

·                    Not satisfied – 12%



2. Did employees  had any incentive wage scheme for efficient work in the organization?

 

·                    Yes – 50%

·                    No – 45%

·                    Can’t Say – 15%



3.  How many employees were secure about their job?

 

·                    Fully Secured – 80%

·                    Partially Secured – 15%

·                    Not Secured – 5%




4. How many employees were satisfied with the working conditions and environment?   

 

·                    Fully satisfied – 77%

·                    Partially satisfied – 18%

·                    Not satisfied – 5%



5. Did workers behave well with the management?

 

·                    Yes – 85%

·                    No  – 15%



6. Was the management helpful and sympathetic to employees’ problems in workstations?

 

·                    To Somextent – 70%

·                    To a Largextent – 30%



7.  How many employees were satisfied with the facilities provided by the organization?

 

·                    Somextent – 90%

·                    Largextent – 10%



8.   How many supervisors were ready to clear employees’ doubts and help in improving their performance?

 

·                    Yes – 80%                    

·                    No – 15%

·                    Can’t Say – 5%



9. Did employees have good personal relations with the manager and supervisors?   

 

·                    Yes – 85%                   

·                    No – 15%

·                    Can’t Say – 0%


 
10.   Was management able to provide housing facilities to their employees?

·        Yes – 0%

·        No – 15%

·        Can’t Say – 85%


FINDINGS:     
                                     

1) Almost all the employees are satisfied with the wages paid to them.

2) 70% of the employees feel that there should be an incentive wages scheme for efficienwork in the organization.

3) Employees are satisfied with the present working conditions and feel secure about theijob.

4) 70% of the employees feel that the management is sympathetic to some extent to their problems faced at the workstation,

5) Management shares a very good relationship with the workers.

6) Employees are satisfied with the facilities provided to them and are free to express their views freely to the management.

7) Supervisors are ready to clear the doubts and help in improving their performance.

8) 70% of the employees feel that thcompany policies really protect their interests.

9) 50% of the employees are satisfied with the present management setup.

10) 60% of the employees feel that the company policies should be changed.

11) Employeeare satisfiewitthe training providettheiimproving their performance.

12) Expenses for thinjured workers are borne by the organization. And medical compensation is also provided to the injured workers.
 
 

RECOMMENDATIONS:


1) Related to working conditions: There is a lack of suppleness concerning preparation activities so the company should make the managers understand this and can slot this in decision-making training programs.

2) Related to salary and promotion opportunities:  These are parameters that lead to a higher level of job satisfaction and motivation. So the company should timely re-examine its reward structure to keep it at par with the industry standards. This is also important from the preservation of employees’ point of view.  Organizations should come up with ground-breaking ways to recognize the dear contributions made by individuals.

3) Related to work relationships:  There is a significant amount of dissatisfaction that is observed when it comes to relationships with superiors. So the organization can arrange for regular feedback to be taken from the employees regarding the relationship with better and accordingly take measures to improve the relationship through training and other team-building activities.

4) Related to the usage of skills and abilities:  Employees feel the need for additional technical training and education should be provided to them along with their continuing work. This can be achieved by allowing the employees to experience a specific number of hours of the training sessions and guarantee every district.

5) Related to work activities and role performed:  Presently formally the feedback is provided only during half-yearly assessment cycles which the employees feel is very generic and the takeaway is very fewer. So the company should permit one-to-one feedback to be given to employees after every set of related behaviour so that the employees can know their areas of development and work on them.

6) Other recommendations: the organization should take steps to construct a long-term alliance with the employees by being sympathetic to the needs and wants of the employees through various programs and surveys.  Organizations should focus on attracting quality talent and work on the retention of employees by providing them with the best treatment possible and perks that match or are above industry principles. The organization should spotlight more on quality than on numbers.



CONCLUSION:

A major confront faced by organizations is, developing and maintaining Organizational behaviour and Job satisfaction. It is in the interest of all organizations to secure commitment and decrease employee turnover. So this topic has attracted the interest of many researchers. Organization managers need to make effort to develop human resource policies that are in alignment with the needs and motivation of their employees. The findings of this study have pointed out some salient issues faced in the company like training, and education, relations with superiors, etc. Organizational management needs to meet the demands of their employees to fortify their motivation, satisfaction, and pledge to minimize turnover.



REFERENCES:


1. Job Satisfaction Survey, Volume 3, Edition 5, Absolute Advantage, Published by WELCO (Wellness Council of America).

2. Meyer, J. P., Becker, T. E., & Vandenberg he, C., Employee commitment and motivation: A conceptual analysis and integrative model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 991- 1007 (2004).

 3. Prasad L.M. (2002).Organizational Behavior: New Delhi: Sultan Chant &Sons Publishers.

4. Ritz, Adman. & Ramey, Muhammad. (2010). Antecedents of Job satisfaction-A study of the telecom sector. Perspectives of Innovations, Economics and Business, Vol.4, 66-73.

5. Measuring job satisfaction in Surveys. Comparative Analytical Report, European Foundation for the Improvement of Working and Living conditions (2007)

6. Clark, A.E., Measures of job satisfaction – What makes a good job? Evidence from OECD countries, Lab our Market and Social Policy – Occasional Paper No. 34, OECD, Paris (1998).