Is management science or art
Is management science or art? This question has been a subject of debate among scholars and professionals in the field for a long time. To gain a deeper understanding of this issue, it is essential to delve into the complexities of management and explore its different aspects.
The controversy about the nature of management, as to whether it is a science or art, is very old. This controversy remains unresolved, yet it doesn’t receive much discussion. Specification of the exact nature of management as science art or both is necessary to specify the process of learning management. It’s important to recognize that the process of learning in science is distinct from that in art. Learning principles involves the assimilation of principles while learning art involves its continuous practice.
Specification of the exact nature of management as science art or both is necessary to specify the process of learning management. Management is not easy. It is not an exact science. People consider it an art that individuals refine and master through their experiences. When viewed as an art, management is a remarkable, but natural expression of human behaviour. It is intuitive, creative and flexible, Managers are leaders and artists who can develop unique alternatives and noble ideas about their organisation’s needs. They become attuned to the people and events around them and learn to anticipate unexpected turns that happen around them.
Distinguishing Between Management as a Science or an Art
We can confidently categorize management as a science because it rests on specific principles and emphasizes a well-organized body of knowledge, observations, tests, and experiments. However, it’s important to note that management lacks the precision found in fields such as physics, chemistry, or biology.
We can outline the difference between management as a science or an art as follows.
1) Scientific knowledge is more precise than commonsense.
2) Flagrant inconsistency often appears in common sense whereas logical consistency is the basis of science.
3) Science systematically seeks to explain the events it encounters, while common sense often overlooks the necessity for explanation.
4) The scientific method deliberately exposes claims to the critical evaluation of experimental analysis; the commonsense method fails to test conclusions in any scientific fashion.
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Management as Art
Art involves applying knowledge and skills to achieve desired outcomes. The essential elements of art are:
By considering the following points, we can determine how management measures up to these requirements:
1) Result-Oriented Approach
Art seeks to achieve concrete results. The management process directs its efforts toward attaining desirable goals. Every manager utilizes certain knowledge and skills to successfully attain the desired outcomes. He strategically uses essential materials, money, men, and machinery to promote the expansion and development of the organization.
2) Improvement through Practice
Practice makes one perfect. Every artist enhances their abilities and becomes more and more proficient through continuous practice. Likewise, a manager acquires experience through consistent practice and ultimately enhances their effectiveness.
Art is creative and an artist aims at producing something that had not existed before. Therefore, the creation of any artwork requires the utilization of both imagination and intelligence. Like any other art, management is creative. A manager proficiently combines and coordinates the various production factors to generate high-quality goods and services. Mastering the art of shaping attitudes and behaviour in the workplace to achieve desired goals requires high-level skills.
4) Personal Skills
Every artist has his style and approach to his job. The level of success among artists can vary, even when they possess similar technical knowledge and qualifications. This is due to the level of their skills. Likewise, management incorporates personalization. Every manager has his approach and style to solving managerial problems. The success of a manager depends not only on their technical knowledge but also on their personality.
5) Practical Knowledge
Every art signifies practical knowledge. Like an artist who not only grasps theory but also applies it in practice, a successful manager cannot solely rely on theoretical education, a degree, or a diploma in management. They must also learn to apply their knowledge in practical situations to solve managerial challenges in real life. The evaluation of a manager’s effectiveness considers their technical knowledge along with their effectiveness in its application.
Management as Science
Science means a systematic body of knowledge about a specific field of study. It contains several principles and facts which explain a phenomenon. These principles establish a cause-and-effect relationship between two or more factors. These principles and theories have the dual purpose of explaining past events and predicting action outcomes. Scientists employ methods such as observations and experiments to formulate these principles, which hold universal application and validity.
Therefore, the fundamental characteristics of science are as follows:
1) Their validity can be verified and they serve as reliable guides for predicting future events.
2) Basic facts or general principles capable of universal application.
3) Developed through scientific enquiry or experiments.
4) Establish cause-and-effect relationships between various factors.
We can assess the extent to which management meets the above conditions by considering the following points:
1) Universal Principles
Scientific principles represent fundamental facts about a specific field of inquiry. This objective represents the best thinking on the subject. These principles find application in any situation and at any time. We can logically explain any exceptions that might arise. Sound management principles have universal application. However, principles of management differ from those of physics or chemistry. They are adaptable and require adjustments in varying situations.
2) Scientific Enquiry and Experiments
Scientific principles arise from thorough scientific investigation and logical reasoning. This ensures an objective and impartial assessment of the problem at hand, with chosen actions logically explained. These principles undergo rigorous testing for scientific validation, independent of personal opinions or religious belief.
3) Cause-and-effect Relationship
Scientific principles establish a cause-and-effect relationship between related factors. Similarly, the principles of management establish cause-and-effect relationships between different variables. For example, a lack of balance between authority and responsibility will cause management to become ineffective.
4) Tests of Validity and Predictability
Testing the validity of scientific principles is possible at any time and as many times as needed. The test will give the same result on every occasion. Scientific principles make it possible to forecast future events reasonably accurately. Testing for the validity of management principles is a feasible option. For example, The principle of unity of command can be tested by comparing two individuals: one who reports to a single boss and another who reports to two bosses. The performance of the first individual will be better than that of the second.
5) Systematic Body of Knowledge
Management has a well-structured body of knowledge encompassing fundamental principles and techniques. These principles help in understanding events and serve as guidelines for managers in various types of organizations. Management principles are also based on investigation and scientific enquiry. These have been developed through experiments and the practical experience of a large number of managers. For example, it has been observed that wherever one employee has two or more bosses simultaneously, confusion and discipline are likely to arise, about following the instructions.
Thus, management is undoubtedly a science. It contains a structured body of knowledge in the form of general principles that have universal applicability. However, management is not as exact as physical sciences like Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and other natural sciences. This is because management involves working with people, and accurately predicting the behaviour of living human beings can be quite challenging. Management principles are universal but they cannot be expected to give the same results in every situation. This reason is why management is frequently termed a “soft science.” Management is a social science. It is still growing, with the increasing demands of human organizations.
Management is both a Science and an Art
Management is both a science as well as an art. It is a science because it has an organised body of knowledge consisting of theories and principles. It is an art because it involves getting results through practical applications of skills and knowledge.
According to Koontz and O’Donnell, “Essentially managing is the art of doing and management is the body of knowledge that underlies that art”.
Effective management is the result of a judicious blend of art as well as science. Science provides the principles, while the way principles are to be applied is a matter of art. The body of management knowledge offers essential principles for effective management, such as methods to motivate employees to work diligently. However, individual managers may apply these principles in varying ways, tailoring their approach to suit their specific circumstances and objectives. The principles of management which have been scientifically developed reduce the manager’s reliance on intuition. However, these principles are to be practised over time for managers to become effective in the art of management.
Management as a science has provided a systematised body of knowledge to be learnt by the prospective and the working managers. That is why the old saying that ‘managers are born’ has been replaced in favour of recognizing that managers are made. Because management has emerged as a science and people can be trained to be managers the fact that management is an art, mere training in management is not sufficient to ensure that the person will become a successful manager. Theoretical knowledge provided by management science must be supplemented by practice and personal creativity.