Table of Content:-

Meaning of Personality

The term personality has been derived from the Latin word ‘persona’, which means ‘to speak through.’ Personality comes from within ourselves and defines who we are. Personality is the result of the social interaction of an individual in a group. It refers to the differences of individuals in the context of their way of thinking, feeling, behaving, responding and interacting with other individuals. 

The study of personality emphasises two aspects. 

Firstly, the focus is on understanding individual differences in specific personality traits such as sociability or irritability.

Secondly, the focus is on understanding how different parts of a person combine together to function as a whole.

Personality in organisational behaviour is the collection of all possible ways in which a person behaves and communicates with others. Conversely, it also means how people influence others as well as how they understand and see themselves. It includes their pattern of internal and external measurable characteristics and the interaction between people and situations. 

Generally, personality is conceptualised by the external appearance of an individual which influences other persons. Personality is an integrated system that includes both the aspects of a person, the ones which are inherited as well as those that are learned. These two aspects are dependent on each other and cannot be separated. It originates from within the inner self of an individual and remains consistent throughout life.

Definition of Personality

According to Schiffman and Kanuk, “Personality can be defined as those inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment”.

According to Gordon Allport, “Personality is the dynamic organisation within the individual and consists of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment”.

According to Eysenck, “Personality is more or less a stable and enduring organisation of a person’s character, temperament, intelligence and physique which determine his unique adjustment to environment”.

According to Camerson, “Personality is the dynamic organisation of interlocking behaviour systems, that each of us possesses, as he grows from a biological newborn to a biological adult in an environment of other individuals and cultural products”.

Nature of Personality

The nature of Personality is as follows:

Nature of Personality

1) Unique: Personality is a unique amalgamation of traits that differentiates the individual from others. The unique style in which people laugh or smile, weep or cry, talk or lecture, greet or salute becomes the symbol of their personality. 

2) Reflects Individual Differences: No two individuals can be considered exactly the same because they collect unique traits. However, an individual may be similar to another in the context of a single personality trait. For example, some people are “high” in sociability (which means they are very social), while some are termed as “low” in sociability. 

3) Result of both Heredity and Environment: It is an undoubted fact that sex difference is determined by heredity. Another fact is that it is the difference in sex that determines the personality of men and women. Hence, on these bases, certain psychologists assert that it is heredity that determines personality.

The environment has an influential effect on human beings. Its influence starts from birth and continues till death. There are differences in the status of the child, youth and an old man in the family and the society, and due to these differences, the roles of men, temperaments, ways of thinking, tendencies and characters are affected. The personality of men and women is determined by all these aspects. Similarly. the personality of an individual is affected by his status in school, occupation, social situation, etc.

Related Article:- Determinants of Personality

4) Learned or Acquired: Personality can be learned from our family members by being around them. It can also be acquired by being in social situations as people communicate and observe other people

5) Integration of Various Traits: The elements which are eventually identified as a part of the individual’s personality get incorporated rather than just being a collection of traits. Thus, the combination of different traits leads to the formation of personality.

6) Dynamic Process: The personality of an individual is an internal dynamic organisation. Here, dynamic means that personality is constantly changing, rapidly but is still organised, hence termed dynamic organization. Development of personality is a mutual relationship between how a person views his personal and the real world’s social and interpersonal experiences. 

It is a continuous growth process, which occurs because of the innate tendency for self-growth. However, our personal, environmental and social experiences also affect this growth process of personality. Due to its ever-changing and constantly developing process, personality can be termed a dynamic process.

7) Psychophysical Systems: Personality can neither be considered solely physical nor solely mental. Neither it is the product of heredity exclusively, nor the product of acquired behaviour or learning exclusively. The organisation of personality involves the functioning of both the “body” and ‘mind’. Hence, personality is a psychophysical system.

8) Social: Personality is totally social. Personality has its life only in response to its external world. An integrated and balanced personality makes pleasant modifications to the environment, mainly the social environment. Hence, the relationship of an individual with the environment, his feelings, and attitudes are essential for understanding the concept of personality.

Types of Personality

Various types of personalities are as follows: 

1) Sensing Managers (SM): Sensing managers use their senses to analyse and absorb all the details related to the problem. They prefer to use standardised methods for solving any issue. They are calm and specific in their work. They do not follow a creative approach to work. Rather, they follow the ordinary path toward getting results. Their emphasis is always on achievement, necessity and end results.

2) Intuitive Managers (NM): Intuitive managers prefer dealing with recent issues and do not like everyday work. They analyse the entire problem as a whole and devise several possible solutions for it. They are creative, innovative, proactive and love challenges.

3) Feeling Managers (FM): Feeling managers strongly believe in giving priority to human beings in case of handling organisational problems. They are procedure-focussed people. They love to keep people happy and stay away from disagreements.

4) Thinking Managers (TM): Thinking managers have a rational and investigative approach to problems to find a reasonable solution.

5) Intuitive Thinkers (NT): They are the originator of new ideas. They follow the organisational principles to find the answers to all the questions. They are highly motivated and very innovative. Organisations lacking intuitive thinkers will have less possibility of changes.

6) Sensation Feelers (SF): Sensation feelers practically handle substantial issues. They have very strong observation powers and can detect the minutest details associated with the working of an organisation. They do not go against the system but utilise the existing resources in solving the problem. SFs avoid judging people and trust their colleagues. Organisations without SFs will be unable to identify small issues until they become a big problem.

7) Sensation Thinkers (ST): Sensation thinkers have strong decision-making power and are excellent in assessments of evidence and statistics. They prefer the organisation to follow a formal and impartial approach. They are diligent and very loyal. They are the ones who improve the efficiency of the organisation to a large extent.

8) Intuitive Feelers (NF): Intuitive feelers are the personnel with some magical attraction and display a strong appeal and obligation towards their subordinates. They are passionate and thoughtful about their work. They can adjust to disorganised and group-oriented management systems. An organisation without NFs will have no warmth and charm.

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